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Diabetes Education

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Type 1 diabetes (DM1) is a disorder defined by inadequate insulin production, comprising less than 10% of all diabetes in the world. It is an autoimmune condition and is treated by administering insulin by pump or injections. DM1 occurs in both children and adults. Advancement in technology in both administering insulin and monitoring blood sugar through sensors has been proceeding at a rapid pace in the past decade.

At Carolina Endocrine Associates (CEA), we have extensive experience with DM1 and treat patients over 18 years of age with this condition. Whether patients prefer multiple daily injections with sensors (also known as CGMS—continuous glucose monitoring systems), insulin pumps, integrated systems or traditional glucose fingersticks, we partner with our patients to create the treatment regimen that best suits their individual needs.

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Type 2 Diabetes (DM2) comprises 90% of all diagnoses of diabetes throughout the world. It is defined by insulin resistance rather than insulin deficiency. It can be conceptualized as a continuum of diseases starting in elevated insulin levels with normal glucose levels but progressing over time to overtly elevated blood glucose levels and, ultimately, insulin deficiency. Like DM1, DM2 can require insulin as treatment—but not typically as the initial treatment. Oral medications like metformin are used as front-line treatment options for DM2. Many other agents are now used to control blood sugars in DM2—for example, GLP 1 RA and SGLT2 drug classes.

At Carolina Endocrine Associates (CEA), we understand that the name of the game in DM2 is to avoid complications (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, heart disease and strokes) by getting sugars under control. That means having the lowest Hemoglobin A1C that the patient can achieve without causing hypoglycemia (a dangerously low sugar). Each patient is evaluated by extensive history plus physical exam to determine the ideal regimen for them. Each patient is evaluated for his/her lifestyle choices to see what interventions can be made to improve glycemic control. 

More Information

You can find more information about diabetes type 1 and 2 through the following links: